The Result of Educating Patients
The rule of thumb from our specialists and staff is that educated patients are better equipped to make decisions regarding their health and well being.
Foot and ankle problems usually fall into the following categories:
- Acquired from improper footwear, physical stress, or small mechanical changes within the foot.
- Arthritic foot problems, which typically involve one or more joints.
- Congenital foot problems, which occur at birth and are generally inherited.
- Infectious foot problems, which are caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal problems.
- Neoplastic disorders, also known as tumors, which are the result of abnormal growth of tissue anywhere on the foot and may be benign or malignant.
- Traumatic foot problems, which are associated with foot and ankle injuries, such as fractures.
Leading foot problems are:
- Bunions — misaligned big toe joints that swell and become tender, causing the first joint of the big toe to slant outward and the second joint to angle toward the other toes. Bunions tend to be hereditary, but can be aggravated by shoes that are too narrow in the forefoot and toe. Surgery is frequently performed to correct the problem.
- Hammertoes — usually stemming from muscle imbalance, this condition occurs when the toe is bent into a claw-like position. Hammertoe can affect any toe, but most frequently occurs to the second toe, when a bunion slants the big toe toward and under it. Selecting shoes and socks that do not cramp the toes may help alleviate any aggravation of pain or discomfort.
- Flat foot — Flat foot reconstruction surgery is carried out to relieve pain and restore function in people whose foot arches are very low and where orthotics have not helped. Problems may be caused by a deformity, damage to the tendon that supports the arch or arthritis in the joints around the heel.
- Club foot — Clubfoot occurs when a foot and ankle are permanently twisted. In clubfoot, the ligaments and tendons that hold the muscles to the bones are too tight. This causes the tissues around the ankle to hold the foot in an abnormal position. Clubfoot resembles the head of a golf club, which is how it got its name.
Sprained Ankle or Ankle Sprained
A sprained ankle, also known as an ankle sprain or sprain ankle, twisted ankle, rolled ankle, floppy ankle, ankle injury or ankle ligament injury, is a common medical condition where one or more of the ligaments of the ankle is torn or partially torn.
The following factors can contribute to an increased risk of ankle sprains:
- Weak muscles/tendons that cross the ankle joint, especially the muscles of the lower leg that cross the outside, or lateral aspect of the ankle joint
- Weak or lax ligaments that join together the bones of the ankle joint – this can be hereditary or due to overstretching of ligaments as a result of repetitive ankle sprains;
- Poor ankle flexibility
- Lack of warm-up and/or stretching before activity
- Slow neuron muscular response to an off-balance position;
- Running on uneven surfaces;
- Shoes with inadequate heel support; and
- Wearing high-heeled shoes – due to the weak position of the ankle joint with an elevated heel, and a small base of support.